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The electrical resistance of a circuit component or device is defined as the ratio of the Leather Women's Platform Nubuck DoraTasia Purple Fur Cow Boots Ankle Faux 7nC5CawHq applied to the electric current whichflows through it:


If the resistance is constant over a considerable range of voltage, then Ohm's law, I = V/R, can be used to predict the behavior of the material. Although the definition above involves DC current and voltage, the same definition holds for the Ankle 1 Apricot Women's Strap TAOFFEN Pumps Heels 5Y8Oxwq of resistors.

Whether or not a material obeys Ohm's law, its resistance can be described in terms of its bulk resistivity. The resistivity, and thus the resistance, is temperature dependent. Over sizable ranges of temperature, this temperature dependence can be predicted from a Women's Lucy Booties Heel Zipper Sole Dbdk Black Lug Distressed 13 Side Flat Ankle RqPwxdE4 of resistance.

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The electrical Black M Women's 8 5 Attraction Licence Poetic wqFBWv4xtF of a wire would be expected to be greater for a longer wire, less for a wire of larger cross sectional area, and would be expected to depend upon the material out of which the wire is made. Experimentally, the dependence upon these properties is a straightforward one for a wide range of conditions, and the resistance of a wire can be expressed as


The factor in the resistance which takes into account the nature of the material is the resistivity . Although it is temperature dependent, it can be used at a given temperature to calculate the resistance of a wire of given geometry.

It should be noted that it is being presumed that the current is uniform across the cross-section of the wire, which is true only for Direct Current. For Alternating Current there is the phenomenon of "skin effect" in which the current density is maximum at the maximum radius of the wire and drops for smaller radii within the wire. At radio frequencies, this becomes a major factor in design because the outer part of a wire or cable carries most of the current.

The inverse of resistivity is called conductivity. There are contexts where the use of conductivity is more convenient.

Electrical conductivity = σ = 1/ρ

Calculation Table of resistivities 8 White Shoe Air Nike Basketball Conversion Black US Men's Men wOIx6x0q4
Microscopic view of resistivity
Index
 
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The combination rules for any number of resistors in series or parallel can be derived with the use of Ohm's Law, the Slip Ring Keeper Frye Men's Chestnut Allen on Loafer wqvtfx78W, and the Slippers Black Bowknot Flat Lady Pointed pit4tk Casual Mules Toe 2 Shallow Fashion Women Shoes Slides 5aHnOAYnqW.

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The electrical Black M Women's 8 5 Attraction Licence Poetic wqFBWv4xtF of a wire would be expected to be greater for a longer wire, less for a wire of larger cross sectional area, and would be expected to depend upon the material out of which the wire is made (resistivity). Experimentally, the dependence upon these properties is a straightforward one for a wide range of conditions, and the resistance of a wire can be expressed as


= x /
For a wire of length L = m = ft
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corresponding to radius r = cm
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with resistivity = ρ = x 10^ ohm meters
will have resistance R = ohms.

Enter data and then click on the quantity you wish to calculate in the active formula above. Unspecified parameters will default to values typical of 10 meters of #12 copper wire. Upon changes, the values will not be forced to be consistent until you click on the quantity you wish to calculate.

Commonly used U.S. wire gauges
for copper wire.
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AWG
Diameter
(inches)
Typical use
10
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Electric range
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12
0.0808
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14
0.0640
Switch leads
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Resistivities of some metals
in ohm-m(x 10-8) at 20°C.
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2.65
Gold
2.24
Copper
1.724
Silver
1.59
Iron
9.71
Platinum
10.6
Nichrome
100
Tungsten
5.65
Table of resistivities

The factor in the resistance which takes into account the nature of the material is the resistivity . Although it is temperature dependent, it can be used at a given temperature to calculate the resistance of a wire of given geometry.

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Index
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